Many times when rebuilding our old cars, we carefully rebuild the engine and drive train, and have the doors closing with vault-like precision, but will leave one or two little things that annoy us and, ultimately, keep us from driving the car. It might be a body squeak, no brake lights, or, in the case of our '49 Buick Roadmaster Sedanet, a faulty operating choke valve.
The Buick's complete drive train and mechanics have been rebuilt, the car has been painted, and all that's left now is the interior and putting the chrome back on. It is time to address the choke problem before drive time. The problem with the choke is that it doesn't get enough heat from the manifold to the choke to fully open. On a 12-volt car, you could put on an electric choke, but there aren't any 6-volt chokes. You could specially wire a 12-volt to work, but I would rather make the original work. If it's set almost closed at starting, it starts easily, but doesn't open fully, running rich and fouling out plugs. The carburetor has been rebuilt and the thermostatic spring replaced with a fast-opening one, called a rebuilder's spring, available from Daytona Parts, 386-427-7108.
When we were rebuilding the engine, we removed the exhaust and intake manifolds, resurfacing them and checking the condition of the heat source or inner tube. This is the tube that goes through the exhaust manifold, into which the choke pipe is inserted, which goes back to the choke housing of the carburetor. It is crucial for this pipe to be in good condition, with no holes, breaks or clogs, providing clean air to the choke. If you have ever seen a choke housing that is gummed up with soot, it is caused by a bad heat source pipe. Checking the condition of the pipe with it still on the car is easy. First, find each end of the pipe on the manifold. The top end of course has the choke-to-carburetor pipe in it, and the bottom is directly opposed on the bottom side of the manifold. Remove the choke-to-carburetor pipe and use compressed air with a nozzle to blow through the top hole, putting your finger on the bottom hole of the tube. If you do feel pressure on your finger and don't hear any air hissing inside the manifold, the tube is clear and good. If you don't feel pressure and don't hear air, the tube is stopped up. If you don't feel pressure and do hear air inside the manifold, the tube is broken inside or has holes in it, and must be replaced with a steel line that can withstand the exhaust manifold's high temperature.
Once the manifold pipe is working, the next step is to make a choke pipe. These pipes are generally made out of one of the following metals: 1. Steel, 2. Aluminum 3. Copper. Most choke pipes from the factory were steel. Aluminum replacement tubes generally come in today's choke kits. They also include a compression fitting, compression nut, sleeve insulation and a pipe-to-manifold adapter if it is necessary to step the 1/4" pipe down or up to the manifolds inner tube. These kits work well most of the time, but the compression fittings don't work with all carburetors. Strombergs of the '40's, as the one on our Buick, has a thermostatic spring cover that requires a flared fitting which allows the pipe to pull up tight (but not too tight) to the spring plate. With a compression fitting, the fitting itself takes up room inside the nut, only allowing the nut to lock down on 2-3 threads.
When making the choke pipe, the metal it's made of can make a difference in how much heat gets to the choke. Metals are rated in thermal conductivity @ 300 degrees Kelvin (room temperature), in watts/meter--degree Kelvin. Of the three metals discussed here, copper has the best conductivity, or CU= 401 W/MK. Next is aluminum, AL=237 W/MK, then carbon steel at 35 W/MK. Simply put, copper conducts more heat! So, I chose 1/4" flexible copper tubing to make the choke pipe for the '49. Using the old pipe as a guide, I cut a piece of copper tubing to the correct length, laying it alongside the old piece to mark the bends on the new tube with a Sharpie. I test-fitted the nut to make sure the 90-degree bend at the choke would allow the nut to go on and have enough room to flare. A good, full flare is necessary, or the pipe will ratchet around inside the nut when it is tightened down. Using the wedge tool on my tubing cutter, I reamed open the manifold end of the newly-cut tubing, opening out the end that the tubing cutter had closed down, to provide better air flow. With that done, I test-fitted it to the car. It fit great and I was now ready for the high-temp sleeve insulation. Quarter-inch insulation sleeve is nearly impossible to find, but I did find some 3/8" that worked out well, allowing plenty of room for bends and providing enough clearance to slip it over the end of the nut for a good seal. I found this in a 50-foot spool of fiberglass insulation for $41. It can take continuous 1200-degree heat (very important!) and melts at 2048 degrees, available in silver or black. It holds its shape nicely and looks right on the car. I got it from Cable Organizer, manufacturer's part number FGNO.38, at 800-222-0030. When cutting the sleeve, use a hot knife, which keeps the threads from unraveling. After sliding on the insulation, I installed the pipe, set the choke, and fired the old Buick up! It started quick, ran smoothly during warm up, and the choke opened all the way when it reached operating temperature.
I think old cars are a little like us: Sometimes they need a little extra tweaking to make 'em run right!
Some of the most important functions of any car (especially old ones) are that it starts easily, warms up quickly and idles well. Whether it's when we are showing our cars to friends, taking our wives out to dinner, or just enjoying them ourselves, the car needs to start without whining, flooding or running rough.
In last month's DOC, I covered making a choke heat pipe that supplies hot air from the manifold to the carburetor's thermostatic choke (see our Archives at www.southernwheels.com). This month, we will talk about choke adjustment, including the thermostat fast idle and curb idle* adjustments. These will be discussed in general for most carburetors of the late '30's-'50's. Each carburetor manufacturer's specs might be different, so it is important to consult your manual for exact specifications. Note: Some manuals give their adjustment settings using a drill bit for spacing. For example, insert a #41 drill size between the choke valve and air horn. The problem with this measurement is that some drill bits have undersized shanks, giving an inaccurate reading. We use a feeler gauge for an exact measurement. For instance, the decimal equivalent for a #41 drill bit is .096; something to consider before adjusting a choke's thermostat. Sometimes its a case of the manual's specs not working in today's world. Other variables are the thermostat's springs themselves. The original bi-metal springs have gone through decades of extreme hot and cold cycles, and this has changed their tension. If the spring has been replaced with a rebuilder's spring (the type used by today's carburetor rebuilders), that spring will have a different tension than the original spring had. The only way we can follow factory settings is with an OEM, NOS spring.
Before setting our choke adjustments, it is important to review the operation of the choke.
CHOKE OPERATION: COLD ENGINE When the engine and choke are cold, the choke thermostat's spring increases its tension to close the choke valve (flap). The flap is prevented from closing by the throttle stop screw that holds the fast idle came in the slow idle position. This has the choke flap in the partially-open position, and it needs to be closed to start a cold engine. When the accelerator pedal is momentarily depressed, the throttle stop screw is lifted clear of the fast idle cam, and the thermostat then closes the choke valve. After the engine starts running, intake manifold vacuum causes the thermostat housing's piston to partially open the choke valve against the spring tension of the thermostat by admitting sufficient air to give a satisfactory running mixture when the accelerator pedal is released after starting the engine (during warm-up). The throttle stop screw should now be against and near the highest step on the fast idle cam which was rotated to the fast idle position by the closing of the choke. This provides correct throttle opening, preventing stalling during warm-up of the cold engine. If the throttle is partially opened while the running engine is cold, the vacuum piston, along with the increased force of air flow against the offset choke valve, will open the valve against the thermostat's spring tension. The air and spring's opposing forces balance the choke valve to prevent loading,an excessive rich mixture that would foul out spark plugs and produce black smoke from the tailpipe. Note: At wide-open throttle, the vacuum piston does not help to open the choke valve.
CHOKE OPERATION: DURING WARM-UP As the engine and exhaust manifold warms up, air is drawn through the heat pipe into the choke's thermostat housing by manifold vacuum. This warms the thermostat causing it to reduce its spring tension on the choke valve in proportion to the increase in temperature when the throttle is opened and the throttle stop screw is lifted from the fast idle cam. The choke valve now begins opening and the fast idle cam moves to a lower step on the cam. This makes the engine run at a lower speed at closed throttle.
CHOKE OPERATION: HOT When the engine reaches normal operating temperature, the choke thermostat is heated to the point where it no longer exerts any spring tension on the choke valve. The choke now is in the wide-open position and the fast idle cam is in the slow idle position, so that the throttle stop screw is against the lowest step on the fast idle cam at closed throttle.
CHOKE ADJUSTMENT: Before making any adjustments, remove the choke's thermostat cover and check to see that all moving parts are working. Check to make sure the spring isn't broken, the housing cover isn't cracked and there is a spring tab for the spring to hook onto or push against, as some do. These adjustments require a good working carburetor, no vacuum leaks and that the heat pipe is getting enough hot air from the manifold to the chokes thermostat.
With the air cleaner off, engine cold and not running: The first choke adjustment we will make is to ADJUST THE THERMOSTAT by first backing off the spring cover (cap) screws, making sure they have lock washers on them, and rotate the cap back and forth, watching the valve flap open and close. This shows that the spring and cap are hooked upand are working together. Now open the throttle by hand to bypass the fast idle cam. Turn choke cap slowly until it just closes. Push your finger down the air horn (carburetor throat) and feel the tension. Just a little pressure should close the flap. If there is too much tension, requiring more than a little pressure to close the flap, it will result in a rich start, fouling out plugs during warm-up. Now, snug down the cap screws and start and stop the engine several times, checking for a fast start, smooth warm-up and correct curb idle. This is trial and error, and varies a little from car to car. Our '51 Packard 327 straight 8 starts and runs best when the choke valve is set coldat not-quite-closed, but about 1/8" from the valve flap to the air horn.
Next SET THE FAST IDLE CAM ADJUSTMENT Some carburetors do not have curb idle adjustment screws, so the fast idle screw pre-sets the curb idle, as on our '49 Buick Roadmasters Stromberg AAV-267, although our '37 Packard Super 8's Stromberg EE-23 has both. To set the fast idle cam and choke unloader, set the choke to the closed position by depressing the accelerator pedal and releasing it, then back off the fast idle screw where it doesn't touch the fast idle cam. This will allow the choke valve and the fast idle cam to move together manually. To set the fast idle cam with engine cold and choke closed, turn the fast idle screw until it touches the highest step on the fast idle cam, now pull the throttle back to free tension off the screw on the fast idle cam, and with your finger, fully open the choke valve flap. Then release the throttle linkage. The fast idle adjustment screw should now be on the lowest step of the fast idle cam, with the choke flap opened Getting the fast idle cam setting is important because a cold engine during warm-up with too-low RPMs will gas wash the cylinders, resulting in gas in the oil. Generally, fast idle will be around 1500 RPMs. After this adjustment is made, start and stop the engine, checking RPMs at fast and curb idle. Remember, COLD (high step on the fast idle cam) and HOT (low step on the fast idle cam).
Last is the CURB IDLE This also is very important and although we can hear what we think sounds like the right idle, its best to use a dwell tachometer to set to the factorys recommended RPMs. Being off just 200 RPMs over the factorys recommended curb idle can cause an engine to run rich and have hesitation upon acceleration. Conversely, if you can't get your engine to idle down, you probably have another problem. Check for vacuum leaks, compression or timing problems. Curb idle on some carburetors can be set with a curb idle adjustment screw. Some involve bending a linkage to set the curb idle. If there's no curb idle adjustment screw, it is best to consult your manual.
With these adjustments made, the engine should start easily, warm up without fouling out plugs, and idle at the correct RPMs. Just changing to a manual choke won't do all of the automatic choke functions. Fords of the '40's had a manual choke and a hand throttle, so you hand-choked the car to start and held up the engine RPMs with the hand throttle. Chevys of the '40's had manual chokes but not hand throttles, so you had to hand choke it to start, and hold up the RPMs with the accelerator, while pushing in the manual choke as the engine warmed up. The automatic choke, when set correctly, works pretty well and is worth the effort to make it work right. Our old cars are never really finished, and there's always something to do to make them run and look better.
When I bought my first Packard in 1969, it was a Clipper 8 The Clipper series started in 1941 and ran through 1947. One of the features of the newly-designed car was accelerator-activated starting. You just turned on the key, depressed the accelerator, and the car started, eliminating the push button starter on the cars of the era. Not being aware of this at the time, it didnt bother me that someone had bypassed the system when it stopped working, and had installed a push button on the dash to start the car. They had left the correct WDO Carter carburetor with the starter switch mounted on it. When I began to restore the car, I wanted to change back to the original starting method. I sent the carburetor to Daytona Carburetor for rebuilding and switch repair. Then, using a wiring diagram, I removed the dash button and re-wired my carburetor switch. This unique system is relatively easy to rebuild.
Here's how it works: The starting switch is incorporated in the carburetors of all Clipper models, so that the starter can be operated by the accelerator. The carburetor throttle shaft has a milled groove into which rests a steel ball. A short passage in the carburetor casting connects the top of the ball passage to intake manifold vacuum so that with the engine operating, the ball is drawn up into the passage away from the shaft, making the switch operate. When the engine is stopped and the accelerator is depressed, the milled portion of the throttle shaft forces the ball against a plunger, which moves a bakelite guide and a contact spring (shaped like the letter W) up to make contact between the two brass contacts molded into the bakelite switch body. This completes the circuit for the solenoid switch on the starter, causing the starter to crank the engine. As soon as the engine starts, the manifold vacuum acts upon the ball and, when the accelerator is released and the throttle shaft returns to its normal position, the ball is drawn up by vacuum away from the shaft. The ball remains in the upper position as long as the engine is running. A coil spring is provided to return the plunger guide and contact spring, thus breaking the contact between the two brass contacts in the switch body. As long as the ball remains up, any future operation of the throttle does not make switch contact until the engine is stopped. The coil spring rests on a round washer with a square hole, which provides a seat for the spring. Switch contact should be made when the throttle is opened between 30 to 45 degrees. Brass shims between the bakelite guide and contact spring are provided to adjust or determine the point at which switch contact is made. Shims are added to make contact sooner and are removed to delay the contact.
Starting the car: When starting the car, its important to release the accelerator immediately when the engine starts. If its held down allowing the engine to race, all of the rich starting mixture could be drawn out of the manifold, stopping the engine because of the resulting lean mixture. If flooding occurs, it might be necessary to operate the starter with the accelerator fully depressed long enough to clean out the flooded carburetor. Never pump the accelerator!
Choke operation: The choke will come into operation when the accelerator is depresssed to the point of engaging the car-starter switch. When the accelerator is released, the fast idle will come into operation. The choke unloading mechanism, which automatically opens the choke valve when the throttle is fully opened, is the same as non-carburetor switch carburetors.
Its nice to take the mystery out of this system and have it working correctly. This type was used on Packards from '41 to '54, and Buicks with Carter carburetors from '40 to '54.